• With excessive alcohol intake usually comes some form of hangover as the body deals with a toxin overload, and struggles to regulate fat and carbohydrate stores.
• To limit these issues, in short, eat some nutritious slow-digesting food before you start drinking, drink in moderation, don’t mix your drinks, and drink some water while drinking and before you go to bed.
• Next day, don’t compound matters by making unhealthy choices all day, and instead get out for some light exercise – even if you don’t feel better right away, you will feel better for doing something.
• However, this advice should not be seen as an endorsement of heavy drinking or a manifesto to help you “get away” with doing so
Christmas is fast approaching and that often means indulging in one too many alcoholic beverages, not to mention the mince pies. Rather than expecting people to abstain from alcohol or even drink moderately over the entire Christmas, it is reasonable to expect that there will be occasions when you drink a bit too much. It would be great if we could have a night on the town with no side-effects, but to date unfortunately there is no prevention or cure for the dreaded hangover. Hangover pills and the many proposed hangover remedies tend to offer only a little help, but there are some simple nutrition strategies that you can take that can ease the headache, reduce the feeling of nausea and help bring you back to a semi-normal state.
What is a hangover?
When you drink alcohol, your body makes metabolizing this alcohol a priority over all other metabolic processes, and because your body can’t store alcohol and must metabolise it right away, other metabolic processes suffer, mainly the efficient metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. This is most obviously seen on the day following excessive alcohol consumption as shakiness and a craving for sugary foods as the body struggles to appropriately balance sugar levels in the blood.
A hangover is a result of the excess consumption of alcohol that your body is unable to metabolise at the rate it is being consumed. Excess alcohol consumption results in dehydration (alcohol-induced diuresis, which can cause headaches), damage to the lining of your stomach that causes nausea, inflammatory responses that result in tissue damage to name but a few.
Another major contributor to the hangover results from acetaldehyde, which is created when an enzyme called alcohol dehydrogenase breaks down ethanol in the liver. Acetaldehyde is a highly reactive and toxic by-product that can contribute to tissue and cell damage as a result of the formation of damaging molecules known as reactive oxygen species (ROS). When alcohol is consumed acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and glutathione (an antioxidant) are released by the body to break down acetaldehyde. When drinking moderately your body can manage the alcohol load and you don’t suffer the negative effects of a hangover. However if you binge drink and consume more alcohol than your body can manage, this acetaldehyde, which is even more toxic than ethanol, accumulates in your body.
A common sense approach
What you eat before you start drinking can have a strong effect on how you feel the day after. Food helps slow the absorption of alcohol, which will prolong the time it takes alcohol to reach your bloodstream. Never drink on an empty stomach. Drinking water between drinks is another simple approach that will help – even a few small glasses will make a big difference to your hydration and your body’s ability to deal with the alcohol. If you can’t manage that, then at least drink a couple of glasses of water when you get home. Taking a multivitamin tablet and a pinch of salt with the water is also no harm as excess alcohol consumption depletes vitamin stores, which are important for recovery, and many vitamins are important co-factors in the metabolism of ethanol.
Another aspect is your choice of drinks. Certain alcoholic beverages result in worse hangovers than others. For example, whiskey, wine and certain beers can result in more severe hangovers than drinking equal amounts of vodka or other clear alcohols. This is mainly because certain alcoholic drinks result in greater levels of acetone and acetaldehyde being produced during the metabolism of the drinks, which in turn puts greater stress on your body to remove the toxins. Hence, it makes sense to drink alcoholic drinks that are less of a challenge to your body. And we don’t need scientists to tell us that mixing drinks is a bad idea, so aim to stick with the same drink. A drink that works well for a lot of people is gin or vodka with a squeeze of fresh lime, ice and sparkling/soda water. It’s certainly better than drinking “Jägerbombs” – a dark spirit combined with a sugary, caffeinated drink.
The reality is that there is no cure for the side-effects of that we know as the hangover, but there are steps you can take to support your body’s recovery from the damage that excess alcohol consumption can inflict. Fresh berries, green leafy vegetables, nuts, seeds, fresh oily fish and eggs are all great food options to help your body recovery as these are all nutrient-rich. Eggs are particularly interesting because they are rich in the amino acid cysteine that is important in the liver for the metabolism of acetaldehyde.
Ginger has long been used to treat nausea and various illnesses. Being hungover often results in nausea as the body tries to dispose of toxins so ginger is an obvious food to include. Try having some fresh ginger with a green tea or in a fresh fruit smoothie.
Fluids are a priority so begin by sipping on some water to help replace the fluids that you lost on all of those trips to the toilet the night before. Mixing an electrolyte sachet into your water to replace lost electrolytes is a good idea if you are having trouble eating solid food. Coffee has been the go-to drink for treating hangovers for generations, mainly because it helps people feel more alert after a heavy night out. Drinking coffee to treat your hangover is a personal thing – some people find it works wonders but for others it makes them feel worse. If you find it helps, then stick with it, but if it doesn’t help, then stick to water and herbal teas.
Exercise is the last thing most people will want to do with a hangover but some physical activity has its merits. Exercise increases your metabolic rate and blood flow, which can help speed the removal of toxins. Make sure you are hydrated before you head off for your exertions, and bring some water to replace lost fluids.
What NOT to do!
Everyone has their own ideas about what helps them get over their hangover: the big fry, greasy food, pizza, white toast, more alcohol and energy drinks are commonly mentioned as recovery foods. None of these foods are recommend as although they might offer temporary enjoyment, they don’t support the recovery process and can often make you feel worse. A days worth of unhealthy eating the next only worsens the overall consequences of the night out.